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Personal memoirs/bios

Learn the history
through these personal stories

 

Halina BABINSKA- Deported with her family, her parents died as a result of the conditions. She spent time in the Middle East, eventually settling in Canada

Alojzy BACHHe was sent to forced labour in Germany, then conscripted into the German army. He eventually joined the Polish 2nd Corps. After the war, he settlede in Canada

Czeslaw BALINSKI - Czeslaw described the deportation and life in Siberia in an essay he wrote as a cadet in the Middle East in 1942.

Bozena BALUT - Bozena Balut’s address to the Polish-Canadian Group on November 11, 1995. Inspired by her parents’ and grandparents’ generations, and  by Polish soldiers serving in the Allied forces and in the Home Army.  Dedicated to the memory of Jozef Majcher, soldier of the Polish Second Corps (and her mother’s older brother), killed in action in Italy in1944, and Stefan Jerzy  Zukotynski, Flying Officer, RAF, Polish Squadron 300 (and her paternal grandmother’s youngest brother), shot down over France in 1943.

Edward  BATOR - Deported with his family - he and one brother joined the Cadets, while his father and two older brothers joined the Polish 2nd Corps and participated in the Italian Campaign.  After the war, he spent some time in the UK before emigrating to the USA.  He later served in the US military.

Helena BATOR - Deported to Siberia,s he joined the Polish 2nd Corps then volunteered for the Women's Auxiliary of the Polish Air Force in the UK. After the war, she settled in Winnipeg, Manitoba,

Mieczyslaw BATOR - Deported to Siberia, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps and filled out a questionnaire in the Middle Easdt in 1943. This is a translation of what he wrote.

BERNADINE SISTERS of St. Francis - Sister Marietta (Romualda Smolicz), Sister Clarine Gomulka, and Sister Laetissima Grula of Delaware County, PA. describe their deportation experiences.

Kajetan BIENIECKI - After participating in the Home Army, he escaped Soviet-occupied Poland and made his way to Italy.  Here he describes that journey in great detail.  After the war, he settled in Canada.

Stanislaw BIERNACIK - Stanislaw fought in the September Campaign, evacuated to Romania, joined the Polish forces in France, evacuated to the UK, joined the 1st Polish Armoured Division, and fought in the European Campaign.  After the war, he spent some years in the UK before emigrating to the U.S.

Feliks BILOS - Deported to Siberia, Feliks joined the Polish 2nd Corps and fought in the Italian Campaign. After the war, he settled in Canada.

Richard BITNER-GLINDZICZ - An excerpt from the book "Song for Kresy" :  The journey south, after the 'amnesty'

Aleksander BOGDAN - Deported to Siberia with his parents and siblings, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps and fought in the Italian Campaign.  He spent some years in the UK before emigrating to Canada.

BOGUSLAWSKI Family - The five young siblings were deported to Siberia and their grandfather insisted on going with them, even though he was not on the list.  It was thanks to him that the children survived Siberia.

Krystyna BOJANOWICZ-KACZMARSKI - Deported with her parents and sister, who died in exile. She reached Persia, then spent the war years in Beirut, Lebanon.  She moved to England after the war, and eventually emigrated to the U.S.

Henryk BOLCEWICZ - A Polish pilot who flew missions in the September Campaign in Poland, then in France, and later in 301 Squadron in the UK. He spent the latter years of the war in several German POW camps. Henryk settled in England after the war.

Stefania BORST - She describes the 6 years spent in Kazakhstan with her 2 small children and her maid

Leonard BRZEZINSKI - Served in the Polish 2nd Corps, Signals Unit, and participated in the Italian Campaign.  After the war, he came to Canada on a 2 yr work contract

Jan BRODA - Conscripted into the German Army, Jan managed to escape and join the 1st Polish Armoured Division where he served for the rest of the war.  After the war he spent a few years in the UK before settling in the US.

Joanna BRODNIEWICZ - Deported to Siberia with her parents and sister, her father joined the Polish 2nd Corps on release from the labour camp.  Joanna spent the war years in Isfahan, then Beirut.  After the war, she spent some years in England before emigrating to the U.S.

Jan BRZESKI - Served in the 1st Polish Armoured Division and participated in the European Campaign.  This text describes some of his wartime experiences. After the war, he returned to Poland.

Leonard BRZEZINSKI - Served in the Polish 2nd Corps, Signals Unit, and participated in the Italian Campaign.  After the war, he came to Canada on a 2 yr work contract

Michal BRZEZOWSKI - Served in the Polish Air Force, in the September Campaign, in France, and in the UK.  He was shot down over the Thames Estuary and his body was never found.

Tadeusz BUBIEN - Deported to Kazakhstan with his family in April 1940, he describes the harrowwing experiences that his family endured on several collective farms before finally making it back to Poland in 1945.

Stefan BURACZEWSKI - Forcibly drafted into the Russian army, Stefan was then sent to a labour camp in Siberia. On release,he joined the Polish 2nd Corps and evacuated to Persia. He then joined the 1st Polish Independent Parachute Brigade in Scotland. He participated in 21 jumps, including Operation Market Garden over Arnhem, Holland.

Zbigniew BURAS - Zbigniew was 6 months old when he was deported to Kazakhstan with his family in April 1940. On release, the family spent some time in Valivade, India, then relocated to Koja, Uganda. After the war, they settled in the UK.

Teresa BUREK-OSZURKO - Deported to Siberia with her parents, grandparents and siblings, her father joined the Polish 2nd Corps when they were released.  The rest of the family spent the war years iat the Valivade Camp in India, then settled in Buffalo, New York after the war

Ludomir CABUT - Deported to Siberia with his entire family, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps when they were released.  He later transferred to the Signals Unit of the 1st Polish Armoured Division (1PAD) and participated in the European Campaign. He settled in the UK 

Andrzej CHENDYNSKI - Deported with his parents and 2 brothers, he was the only one who survived.  Here he describes life in an orphanage in the USSR and then his life in Valivade, India.

Kazimierz CHMIELOWICZ - Participated in the September Campaign, then was in a Russian POW camp. On release, joined the Polish 2nd Corps and fought in the Italian Campaign. After the war, he settled in Canada.

Bozena CHODAKOWSKI - Deported to a slave labour camp with her family, her parents and brother died in the USSR. She and a remaining brother were evacuated to Persia and subsequently to Balachadi Camp in India. Bozena later settled in the US while her brother settled in Canada..

Zygmunt CHOJECKI - Deported to a slave labour camp with his family, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps on release, trained with them in the Middle East, and participated in the Itlian Campaign where he lost his leg at the battle of Monte Cassino. He4 settled in England after the war, where he met his wife who had played a major role at Blechley Park.

Cecilia CHOJNO - Deported to Archangelsk, Siberia with her family, she spent some time in Palestine, before spending 6 years at the Polish refugee camp in Koja, Uganda. After the war, she spent some time in England, before emigrating to Winnioeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Antonina CHORZEPA - Deported to a slave labour camp with her family, two of her brothers were later conscripted into the Russian army. Antonina returned to Poland in 1946.

CHROCIELEWSKI - Description of the Caspian Sea Crossing to Persia in 1942

Feliks CHUSTECKI - Deported to a slave labour camp at age 14 with his family, he later became a pilot in the Polish Air Force in the UK, and settled in Britain after the war.

Wanda CHYCZEWSKA- Deportedwith her family to a slave labour camp in Siberia, she then spent the war years in a Polish refugee camo in Tanzania. After the war, she lived in Englnad, beforeemigrating to Canada.

Mieczyslaw CISZALOWICZ - He describes pre-war life on the settlement in Eastern Poland before he was deported to Siberiawith his parents and siblings.  He also describes life in Siberia, life in Masindi in East Africa, and then his life after the war.

Karol COMPLAK - Member of the 1st Polish Armoured Division who participated in the European Campaign and was part of the occupation force in Germany after the war.

Lech CYGANIEWICZ-HALKO - Excerpt from his book "The Anchor The Chosen Coat of Arms" describing life at Stalag IX-B Fallingbostel where Warsaw Uprising participants were taken.

Stanislaw CZACZKA - Deported to Siberia, he joined then Polish 2nd Corps, trained in the Middle East, and participated in the Italian Campaign.  He settled in the UK after the war

Roman CZERNIAWSKI - Initially spying for Poland, then Britain and then pretending to spy for Germany while instead working for the Allies, during his extraordinary undercover life Roman Czerniawski had not only been a secret agent, he had also been a double and triple agent.

Anna CZUBRYT Anna was deported to Siberia with her husband Michal, and their infant son Jozef. Michal joined the Polish army, while Anna and Jozef spent 6 years at the Polish refugee camp in Valivade, India. After the war, the family settled in Canada.

Michal CZUBRYT Michal was deported to Siberia with his wife Anna, and their infant son Jozef. Michal joined the Polish army, while Anna and Jozef spent 6 years at the Polish refugee camp  in Valivade, India. Michal served in the3DSK of the Polish 2nd Corps and fought in the Italian Campaign. After the war, the family settled in Canada.

Waldemar CZYZ Waldemar was a member of the 1st Polish Armoured Division and  and participated in the Northern European Campaign.  He settled in the US after the war

Andrzej DEBICKI - A very detailed account of his experiences: as a participant in the September Campaign in Poland, he was a POW at various Russian camps.  On release, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps, and participated in the Italian Campaign. He was awarded the VIRTUTI MILITARI medal

Franciszka DOBROWLANSKA - Born in 1906, she writes a detailed account of her life from early childhood. After their husbands were arrested by the Russians, she and her sister were deported to Siberia with their children. On release, they spent the war years in Koja, Uganda in  Africa.  She settled in the UK after the war, later emigrating to Canada.

Stanislaw DREWK - Duriing the war, he first served in the German army, then he escaped and joined the 1st Polish Armoured Division. After the war, he returned to Poland.

Jan DREWNIAK - Born in 1919 in the Postolowka settlement of Tarnopol province, he was forcibly conscripted into the Russian Army in 1940.  Released on 'amnesty', he joined the Polish 2nd Corps, evacuated to the Middle East, and later fought in the Italian Campaign.  He met and married Lucia Materiale and lived in Italy after the war, before emigrating to Canada in 1948.

Edward DRZYSTEK - Deported to Siberia as an infant with his mother and grandmother, he thren spent 6 years at the Polish refugee camp in Masindi, Uganda, East Africa. After the war, the family settled in Canada.

Irena EHRLICH - Deported to Siberia with her parents and siblings.  On release, she joined the Polish 2nd Corps, her brother joined the Cadets, and the rest of the family spent 5 years in East Africa.  She emigrated to Canada after the war, first to Saskatchewan, and then to Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Rudolf FALKOWSKI - Conscripted into the Russian Army - Sent to Siberia - Joined the Polish Air Force in the UK.  Excerpts of the diary he wrote at the time give a unique glimpse into what was really happening in Poland - in Siberia - in the UK.

Bronislaw FEDOROWICZ - Deported to Siberia with his family, Bronislaw spent 6 years at the Tengeru Polish refugee camp in Arusha, Tanzania. After the war, the family reunited in England, before emigrating to Canada in 1952.

Jan FEDOROWICZ - Deported to Siberia with his parents and siblings.  On release, his father and older brother joined the Polish 2nd Corps, while the rest of the family spent 5 years in Tengeru, in East Africa

Bronislaw FEDZIN - Deported to Siberia with his family.  On release, some members of the family joined the Polish 2nd Corps, others were forced to join Berling's Army, and still others remained in the USSR until after the war,

Roman FIGIEL - Served in the 1st Polish Armoured Division in Northern Europe. Settled in Breda after the war, where he married a Dutch girl he had met earlier.

Edwarda FIJAL- Deported to Siberia with her family.  On release, she joined the Women's Auxiliary of the Polish 2nd Corps and worked as s a nurse at a hospital in Rehevot, Palestine.

Bronislawa FRANCUZ - Intellectually and physically disabled, she was deported with her family to Siberia, then evacuating with the Polish Army to Persia (Iran) and spent 6 years at the Valivade Camp in India before settling in the UK. She ended up being left alone in the UK when her family moved to the US, and she ended up in a mental institution for some years, before being moved to a Care Home.

Czeslaw FRANCZYK - The family were deported to Siberia in 1940. On release, Czeslaw's father Wojciech, and brothers, Karol and Zdzislaw, joined the Polish 2nd Corps, while Czeslaw, his mother Rozalia, and his sister Genowefa, spent 7.5 years in Massindi, Uganda. After the war, the family settled in Canada.

Karol FRANCZYK - The family were deported to Siberia in 1940. On release,  Karol joined the 3rd Carpathian Rifle Brigade of the Polish 2nd Corps. He was a Corporal in the 5th Battalion, and served in the Italian Campaign. After the war, he settled in Canada.

Zdzislaw FRANCZYK - The family were deported to Siberia in 1940. On release, Zdzislaw  joined the Polish 2nd Corps - 4th Armoured Regiment "Skorpion" - and served in the Italian Campaign. After the war, he settled in Canada.

Zygmunt FRANKEL - Jewish child deported to the steppes of Kazakhstan with his mother

Jerzy FRIEDRICH - Deported to Siberia, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps when 'amnesty' was declared.  He participated in the ItalianCampaign.  After the war, he emigrated to Argentina, and later settled in Seatle, Washington, USA..

Wolf FRYDLAND - Deported to Siberia, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps when 'amnesty' was declared.  He later transferred to the 1st Polish Armoured Division and participated in the European Campaign.  After the war, he settled in the UK.

GAC Family - Deported to Siberia, father and son joined the Polish 2nd Corps when 'amnesty' was declared.  The rest of the family spent some time in Persia, then moved to the Country Club and Valivade camps in India.  After the war, the family reunited in England, and eventually emigrated to Canada.

Michal GALAZKA- Deported to Siberia with his mother and brother. When 'amnesty' was declared the family evacuated to Persia, then were sent to a Polish refugee camp in East Africa, where Michal completed his education.  After the war, the family  emigrated to Ottawa, Canada.

Zofia GALINA - Deported to Kazakhstan with her parents and sisters.  Her father was conscripted to the Russian Army, while her mother and sisters spent years on a collective farm.  The mother and an aunt died there, and the girls were later repatriated to Poland.

Franciszek GARBIZ - Deported to Siberia, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps on release, and served in the 2nd Warsaw Armoured Division, 1st Regiment of Ulans of Krychowiec. He fought in the Italian Campaign and emigrated to Canada after the war.

Andrzej GARLICKI - After his father was arrested by the Russians, he and his mother and brother were deported.  His father was later executed by the Russians at Katyn. On release, Andrzej joined the Polish 2nd Corps and participated in the Italian Campaign. After spending 5 years in the UK, Andrzej emigrated to Canada.

Jan GARLICKI - After his father was arrested by the Russians, he and his mother and brother were deported.  His father was later executed by the Russians at Katyn. On release, Jan joined the Polish 2nd Corps and participated in the Italian Campaign.  After spending a few years in the UK, Jan emigrated to Argentina and later to Canada.

Czeslaw GASZYNSKI - Deported to Siberia with his family. On release, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps, served in the Middle East and the Italian Campaign. After the war, he settled in Canada.

Karol GASKA - His mother was deported to Siberia, and Karol was born in the USSR as she made her way to find the Polish army. Evacuated to Persia, they were then sent to the Santa Rosa Polish colony in Mexico. After the war, they settled in Canada.

Wanda GAWEL-SZUWALSKA - Deported to Archangelsk with her family. On release, she joined the Polish 2nd Corps and trained in the Middle East, before joining the Polish Air Force in the UK, where she served as a Clerk General Duties until the end of the war. 

Wanda GERTZ - Participated in the Home Army during WW2, captured by the Germans and sent to a series of POW camps. She settled in England after the war.

Stan GETMAN - Deported to Siberia, he eventually made his way to France then to England, where he became a highly-decorated pilot of the Polish Air Force in the UK.  After the war, he settled in England.

Rudolf GIBAS - Officer Cadet captured by the Germans and spent time in POW camps,escaped and reached the UK where he joined the 1st Independent Parachute Brigade, and later joined the Polish Air Force in the UK. Eventually settled in the U.S.

Witold GLINSKI - Deported with her family, he was separated from them and ended up in a labour camp near the Chinese border.  He escaped, along with 6 other prisoners, and  they made the incredible trek to India.  Only 4 of them survived the journey.  Witold joined the 1st Polish Armoured Division in England.  He settled in the UK after the war.

Jerzy GLOWCZEWSKI - Escaping Warsaw after the Germans attacked, he made his way to the Middle East and joined the Polish 2nd Corps.  He later transferred to the Polish Air Force in the UK an served in the 308 Polish Squadron.  He settled in Poland after the war, and also lived in the U.S. and Egypt.

Bronislaw GODLEWSKI - As a Polish-American, he volunteered for the Polish Air Force in the UK and was grievously injured during a bombing raid over France, where he continued to direct the pilot in spite if his injuries. He lost both arms at the elbows as a result, and was awarded the Virtuti Militari medal for his extreme bravery. He returned to the U.S. after the war

Janusz GOLUCHOWSKI - Participant of the Warsaw Uprising at age 16, he was captured and taken to Germany for forced labour.  Liberated by the Americans, he then joined the 1st Polish Armoured Division.  He returned to Poland in 1947.

Zbigniew GONDEK - After his father\s arrest by the Russians, he was deported with his mother.  After release, he joined the 3DSK of the Polish 2nd Corps and he participated in the Italian Campaign. He was awarded the VIRTUTI MILITARI medal.  His father was executed at KATYN.

GORAL and Radomski Families - The families were deported from the Eastern Borderlands in Feb. 1940.  On release, they made their way to join Anders Army, evacuating to the Middle East, and eventually settling in the UK.   Their story is told in the books: Midnight Train to Siberia and Escaping Siberia.

Piotr & Wladyslawa GRABOWSKI- Piotr fought in the September Campaign, was captured by the Germans and spent the rest of the war in a German Prisoner of War Camp.   Wladyslawa was arrested by the Germans and sent to a Slave Labour Camp in Germany. A portion of their histories is presented here as excerpts from their daughter's book titled "The Soul's Journey".

Jerzy GRADOSIELSKI - He participatesd in the September Campaign, then was deprted to Siberia by the Russians.  After release, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps and he participated in the Italian Campaign. He was awarded the VIRTUTI MILITARI medal and 2 Crosses of Valour. 

Mieczyslaw GRECZYLO - His father was executed at Katyn, and he wes deported to Siberia with his mother. They ended up spending 9 years in Uganda. In 2006 he helped raise money to renovate the church and cemetery in Massindi.

Jan Zbigniew GRUSZKA - After release from the labour camp, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps, trained in the Middle East and participated in the Italian Campaign.  He describes life in the camp, as well as the events of the Italian Campaign.

Jozefa GRZESKOWIAK-KIERKIEWICZ - She describe the journey south in the USSR after they were released by the 'amnesty', and then the journey to reach the Abercorn Settlement in East Africa.  Jozefa also provides details about the settlement and what it was like to live there for 4 years before returning to Poland.

Walter GUBERNACZUK - Walter participated in the September Campaign before being deported to Siberia by the Russians. On release, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps, serving in the Middle East and in the Italian Campaign. He settled in Canada after the war.

Zbigniew HELON - Deported to Siberia with his parents, he and his mother spent 5 years in Africa while his father fought with the Polish 2nd Corps. He returned to Poland in 1947, and later emigrated to Australia.

HERZOG Family Chronicles (1866-2000) - Covering the following topics:  Deportation / India / the Polish 2nd Corps / KATYN

Zbigniew HOSZOWSKI - Deported to Siberia with his family. On release, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps. In 1943 he transferred to the Polish Air Force in the UK. He eventually emigrated to Canada.

Lt-Col HUGHES - She was the Principle Matron at the Teheran Hospital where Polish refugees arriving in Persia in 1942 were treated.  This is an excerpt from her diary where she goes into great detail on how the hospital was set up and the challenges they faced in treating the Poles.

Roman JAGIELLOWICZ - Roman was 16 years old when he was deported with his family, he then joined the  Polish 2nd Corps, and participated in the Italian Campaign. After the war, he settled in Canada.

Franciszek JAKIELASZEK - Deported with his family, he then joined the  Polish 2nd Corps,  6th Armoured Regiment, and participated in the Italian Campaign.  

Thaddeu JAROSZEWICZ - The parents were deported with 7 children..  On release, the father joined the Engineering Corps of the Polish 2nd Corps, and the oldest daughter joined the Women's Auxiliary of the Polish 2nd Corps.  The mother, 3 daughters and one son spent the war years in Tengeru, Africa.  The family spent a few years in the UK after the war, then eventually settled in the USA.

Stanislawa JASIONOWICZ - Deported at age 9 with her family to the gold-mining town of Dzytygara in Northern Kazakhstan.  Released on 'amnesty', the family journeyed south to find the Polish Army being formed in the USSR,  Her brother Edward joined the cadets. The rest of the family spent the war years in Lebanon, before moving to the UK.  Stanislawa became Sister Maria Teresa.

Karol JASTRZEBSKI - Participated in the September Campaign in Poland, was captured by the Russians and sent to Siberia.  On release, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps and served in the Middle East and in the Italian Campaign.  After the war, Karol returned to Poland.  

Alojzy JEDAMSKI - Alojzy Jedamski was a Soldier of the Reconnaissance Platoon 2, Squadron 10, Dragon Regiment, of the  1st  Polish Armored Division. His war epic took him through his experiences from the Armoured Division's trail through France, Belgium, Netherlands, and Germany, where he was wounded twice.  After the war, Alojzy returned to Poland.  

Witomila JEZIERSKA - Witomila is the child of Katym victim, Lieutenant Wincenty Witold Wołk of the Heavy Artillery Battalion, who was a lecturer at the Mazovia School of Air Artillery in Zambrow.  This is the story she presented to the Strasbourg Tribunal.

Mieczyslaw JODELUK - After fighting with the Polish Army in France, he was interned in Switzerland, and later joined the joined the 3rd Rifle Brigade of the1st Polish Armoured Division (1PAD) and participated in the European Campaign.  He returned to Poland after the war.

JURCZENKO - KLIMCZAK - LUBNIEWSKI - 3 mini memoirs of their wartime experiences

Bernard JURCZYK - Forcibly conscripted into the German army, Bernard eventually escaped and made his way to the 1st Polish Armoured Division.  He fought with the Division in the European Campaign, and was killed at the battle of Kapelsche Veer in Holland, His body has never been found.

KACZMZRCZYK family - The family lived on the Sienkiewicz military settlement in Wolyn. The entire family were deported to Siberia. On release, the son Bronislaw joined the Polish 2nd Corps. The fate of the father is unknown. The mother returned to Poland in 1946. The 3 daughters ended up in South Africa. Brnislaw emigrated to Canada after the war.

Czeslawa KADELA - Deported to Siberia with her family. On release, her father and brother joined the Polish 2nd Corps. The rest of the family remained in the USSR and returned to Poland in 1946.  Czeslawa later emigrated to Canada

Czeslaw KAMINSKI - After his release from Siberia, he joined the Polish 2nd Corps, and then transferred to the 1st Polish Armoured Division. Here, he describes the division's progress through northern Europe, and his role in the action.

Augustyn KARLOWSKI - Augustyn was 16 when he joined the 1st Polish Armoured Division and served with them in France before evacuating to Scotland. The Division later fought in the Northen European Campaign. Augustyn settled in Scotland after the war.

Genowefa KASPRZYK- Genowefa was deported to Siberia with her family. On release, her parents and two brothers died on the journey out of the USSR. She and her surviving sister spent 2 years at the orphanage in Isfahan, then were sent to Dingleford in South Africa, then to Rhodesia.

Antoni KAZIMIERSKI - Antoni was deported to the Archangelskaja oblast of Siberia with his family.

After the war, he settled in th UK.

Jozefa KIERKIEWICZ - Jozefa was deported to Siberia with her family.  They spent 6 years at at the Abercorn Camp in East Africa, before returning to Poland in 1947.

Danuta KIEZUN - Translated excerpts of an interview where Danuta describes her role as a paramedic in the Warsaw Uprising.

Róża KISIELEWSKA - After her father`s arrest, she was deported to Kazakhstan with her mother and brother.  When they reached Persia, she volunteered for the Women`s Auxiliary of the Polish 2nd Corps and served in the Italian Campaign.  The family spent some years in Soouth America before settling in Canada.

Stanislaw (Stan) KOBYLAK - Deported to Siberia with his family, several members did not survive. On release, the remaining members of the family made their way south, where Stan's father joined the Polish 2nd Corps. Stan, his mother and brother, evacuated to Persia, and eventually made their way to a Polish refugee camp in Rhodesia. After the war, the family emigrated to the US.