top of page



Polish 2nd Corps


Translation of a questionnaire he completed when he reached the Middle East in 1942. The original document is held at the Hoover Institution Archives in California.


He provided the following information about the “so called” plebiscite (referendum) put forth by the occupying Russian authorities in October 1939:


At the time of invasion by the Red Army I was a farmer living in Senków, Brzeżany county, Tarnopol voivodeship. The Soviets took over our authorities and their rule began with the instruction to arrest all the former administrative officials in our village. Those who did not want to work during Polish rule, inspired rebellion in the nation, and were jealous of those who made a living using their own two hands. When the Red Army invaded, they said we must destroy all the Poles because Poles have made their fortunes here by robbing us.


When we asked the Soviets for any sort of help, they responded by saying that they had done the right thing, as there shouldn’t be a single Pole here.


Those who did not want to submit themselves to the Soviet rule were continuously observed and eventually arrested.


Before the start of the election propaganda, the Soviet authorities organized a village council that was joined by people who could not read or write. And the locals who did not want to participate were taken away to a place of no return. Before the elections, the Soviets organized assemblies which everyone had to attend, as the military police would go from house to house gathering the people.

(Text partially missing) The composition of the electoral commission was determined by the Russians: 3 Soviets and 3 locals who could not read or write.


The election was made compulsory and those who did not comply were put on a horse cart and taken away. After the elections in our town, they said that those who had worked for the Polish government were not needed. A short while later, they took us all away, deep into the heart of Russia. They deported almost every Pole from my village.

Copyright: Michalczyszyn family

bottom of page